A new Einstein cross is found

A new Einstein cross is found

The study, which has collect images from Hubble Space Telescope with spectroscopic lens, a phenomenon predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity.In this case, the observed effect is due to the alteration caused by a galaxy that acts like a magnifying glass amplifying and distorting, in four separate images in the form of a cross, the light of another galaxy located 20,000 million light years away.

One of the most striking conclusions of Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity is that the trajectory of light curves in the presence of matter. And now A new Einstein cross is found.

This effect can be observed in the case of light emitted by a distant galaxy, when its light passes close to another galaxy on its way to the observer.

 The phenomenon is known as gravitational lensing, because it is comparable to the deviation of light rays by the classic glass lenses.

 Similarly, gravitational lenses act like magnifying glasses that change the size, shape, and intensity of the image of the distant object.

One of the most noticeable conclusions of Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity is that the path of light curves in the presence of the matter. 

This effect can be observed in the case of light emitted by a distant galaxy, when light passes close to another galaxy on its way to the observer.

 The phenomenon is known as gravitational lensing, because it is comparable to the deviation of light rays by the classic glass lenses. Similarly, gravitational lenses act like magnifying glasses that change the size, shape, and intensity of the image of the distant object.

Depending on the degree of alignment of the two sources, multiple images of the distant source can be observed, such as four separate images in the form of a cross (hence the name “Einstein’s cross”), rings, or arcs. 

It is in general extremely difficult to spot a gravitational lens, because the separation between the images produced by the lens is usually very small, requiring high-resolution images to see them. 

It was precisely analyzing Hubble Space Telescope high-resolution images that it was possible to locate an asterism that looked like a new example of Einstein cross.

However, spotting four points of light in the shape of a cross positioned around a galaxy does not assure us that it is a lens, so we must show that the 4 images belong to the same object.

 To do this spectroscopic observations are needed. 

For this reason, a team of Italian scientists led by Daniela Bettoni of the Padova Observatory and Riccardo Scarpa of the IAC, decided to observe spectroscopically with GTC the supposed lens. 

According to Scarpa, 

The result could not have been better. The atmosphere was very clean and with minimum turbulence (seeing), which allowed us to clearly separate the emission of three of the four images. 

The spectrum immediately gave us the answer we were looking for, the same emission line due to ionized hydrogen appeared in all three spectra at the same wavelength. There could be no doubt that it was actually the same source of light“.

A new Einstein cross is found, named J2211-0350 according to its coordinates on the sky. 

The object acting as a lens turns out to be an elliptical galaxy located at a distance of approximately 7 billion light years (z = 0.556), while the source is at least 20 billion light years away (z = 3.03).

 “Normally the source is a quasar, it was with great surprise that we realized the source in this case was another galaxy, in fact a galaxy with very intense emission lines which indicates it is a young object still forming large amounts of stars“, explain Bettoni. 

Quite an achievement for GTC, considering only another lens of this type was known.

Also read: China Hints At Surprise Space Station Launch

China Hints At Surprise Space Station Launch.

China Hints At Surprise Space Station Launch

China Hints At Surprise Space Station Launch into orbit later this year, sooner than previously thought, on a commercial-grade rocket that is structured to be more affordable than private rocket launch companies such as SpaceX.

On Monday Xinhua News Agency, the official state-run press agency of the people’s Republic of China, reported that China Hints At Surprise Space Station Launch.

And the China Manned Space Engineering Office (CMSEO) will send the core module of the now-in-development Chinese Space Station (CSS) to the launch site.

 The launch site is at Wenchang Space Launch Center in the second half of this year to prepare for the space station missions. 

Although the CSS had been expected to launch during 2020.

The China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALVT), confirmed on Tuesday. 

That it will test the Long March-5B heavy-lift rocket in the first half of 2019, making the launch the launch of CSS later in 2019 much more likely. 

However, China’s current space station, Tiangong-2 space lab, was launched in 2016 and is due to be deorbited in the second half of 2019. 

However, the CSS is designed to last for at least a decade.

Comparing to the International Space Station, CSS is smaller, and will have a main cabin called Tianhe-1 (Milky Way).

Which was shown off last year, and two laboratory modules. 

While six and occasionally seven astronauts can live on the ISS, only three will be able to stay simultaneously on the CSS. 

China intends to finish building the CSS by 2022.

Also Read: PTA issues six tips to secure mobile phones

Africa found the Miracle Mineral.

Africa found the Miracle Mineral.

Crops primarily need phosphorus which is expensive but there is a cheap and easy alternative found by Africans.

Africa found the Miracle Mineral. Malawi – A South African country found a miracle material that can change future of farmers throughout the world. This material transform itself into compose in around eight weeks. This smelly matter needs periodic turning and a microbial activity that takes place in it.

This organic alternate of fertilizer can improve crops and increase productivity. Its a low cost solution than currently used mineral fertilisers.

 "This is not your ordinary backyard compost pile, where you throw your kitchen scraps, It's a thermic compost pile. We teach how to build it systematically and to scale it to the needs of every farm".

van der Ham also said “For them, one failed harvest means hunger and misery – or worse. So for them, improving soils is not an add-on, not just something to raise the bottom line.”

Not every soil has same properties, some soils are inherently rich in minerals unlike others. Many of the African soils are not inherently rich. More fertile layers of african soil are weathered away as this soil is in use from millions of years. 

Water, light and air are basic constituents for growing plants properly. Plants also need nutrients that includes nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. Phosphorus is the most important nutrient that affects plant earlier in its life. Plants need potassium in building root system, which is part and parcel for a plant to receive other nutrients. 

Several studies are being taking place in research centers and universities to cope with problems that affect crops and improving quality of crops.

Frank Mnthambala, a PhD student working with Dana Cordell at the University of Technology in Sydney reported “Our goal is to make Malawi more independent from imports and managing our nutrients will help us to achieve this goal.”